Doing Advance Work

News that doesn't receive the necessary attention.

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

It's summertime, summertime, sum sum summertime," The Jamies, 1958, re-released in 1962



"The Jamies were an American singing group, led by Tom and Serena Jameson. The group's 1958 single for Epic Records, "Summertime, Summertime," reached #26 on the US Billboard Hot 100." 

Lyrics for  "Summertime, summertime, sum sum summertime,"-The Jamies, 1958, from genius.com 

"It's summertime summertime sum sum summertime
Summertime summertime sum sum summertime 
Summertime summertime sum sum summertime 
Summertime summertime sum sum summertime summertime...

Well shut them books and throw 'em away
And say goodbye to dull school days
Look alive and change your ways
It's summertime...

Well no more studying history
And no more reading geography
And no more dull geometry
Because it's summertime

(Chorus)
It's time to head straight for them hills
It's time to live and have some thrills
Come along and have a ball
A regular free-for-all

Well are you comin' or are you ain't
You slow poke are my one complaint
Hurry up before I faint
It's summertime

Well I'm so happy that I could flip
Oh how I'd love to take a trip
I'm sorry teacher but zip your lip
Because it's summertime

(Chorus)
Well we'll go swimmin' every day
No time to work just time to play
If your folks complain just say
"It's summertime"

And every night we'll have a dance
Cause what's a vacation without romance
Oh man this jive gets me in a trance
Because it's summertime

Chorus
It's summertime

It's summertime summertime sum sum summertime
Summertime summertime sum sum summertime
Summertime summertime sum sum summertime
Summertime summertime sum sum summertime
Summertime

It's summertime"

More from You Tube page:

"Both "Summertime" and its b-side, "Searching for You", are often described as doo-wop, because of their time period and their a-capella harmonies (with a harpsichord backing on "Summertime, Summertime"). However, both songs may also be described as pop versions of sacred harp styles, as the group started as church singers.[citation needed]

Several singles (many written or co-written by members Jameson and Feller) followed "Summertime, Summertime", none of them hits. In 1962, they re-released "Summertime, Summertime" and hit again, this time peaking at #38.

The song's fame far eclipsed the band's; The Fortunes, The Doodletown Pipers, Hobby Horse, Jan and Dean, The Legendary Masked Surfers, Mungo Jerry, and Sha Na Na all covered the tune, and it was used in commercials for Buick and Applebee's.[2] It was also featured in the 1978 film, Fingers.

Tom Jameson died from cancer on July 19, 2009, at the age of 72.

MEMBERS:
Note:This list has every member of the Jamies
Thomas "Tom" Earl Jameson
Serena Jameson (Thomas Jameson's sister, who sang lead vocals)
Jeannie Roy
Arthur Blair
Sherman Feller (Feller, who co-wrote "Summertime, Summertime" with Tom Jameson, later became more famous as the public address announcer for the Boston Red Sox at Fenway Park.) [
Sherman Feller, IMDB: "Public address announcer at Fenway Park, Boston, Massachusetts, home of the Boston Red Sox, 1967-1993."]

SINGLES:
"Summertime, Summertime" b/w "Searching for You" (Epic Records, 1958 single 9281 mono)
"Snow Train" b/w "When the Sun Goes Down" (Epic, 1958)
"Don't Darken My Door" b/w "Evening Star" (United Artists, 1959)"

 

 

 

................

US supported weapons shipments to Syria sent via Saudi Arabia and Qatar go to hardcore Islamic terrorists. US says no way to vet groups getting weapons, groups temporarily modify behavior to appeal to weapons providers-NY Times, Oct. 14, 2012

US provides intelligence and other support for weapons shipments to Syria from Qatar and Saudi Arabia that go to Islamic terrorists.

 10/14/2012, Rebel Arms Flow Is Said to Benefit Jihadists in Syria, NY Times, David E. Sanger

Most of the arms shipped at the behest of Saudi Arabia and Qatar to supply Syrian rebel groups fighting the government of Bashar al-Assad are going to hard-line Islamic jihadists, and not the more secular opposition groups that the West wants to bolster, according to American officials and Middle Eastern diplomats.

That conclusion, of which President Obama and other senior officials are aware from classified assessments of the Syrian conflict that has now claimed more than 25,000 lives, casts into doubt whether the White House’s strategy of minimal and indirect intervention in the Syrian conflict is accomplishing its intended purpose of helping a democratic-minded opposition topple an oppressive government, or is instead sowing the seeds of future insurgencies hostile to the United States.

“The opposition groups that are receiving the most of the lethal aid are exactly the ones we don’t want to have it,” said one American official familiar with the outlines of those findings, commenting on an operation that in American eyes has increasingly gone awry.

The United States is not sending arms directly to the Syrian opposition. Instead, it is providing intelligence and other support for shipments of secondhand light weapons like rifles and grenades into Syria, mainly orchestrated from Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The reports indicate that the shipments organized from Qatar, in particular, are largely going to hard-line Islamists….

American officials have been trying to understand why hard-line Islamists have received the lion’s share of the arms shipped to the Syrian opposition through the shadowy pipeline with roots in Qatar, and, to a lesser degree, Saudi Arabia. The officials, voicing frustration, say there is no central clearinghouse for the shipments, and no effective way of vetting the groups that ultimately receive them….

“We haven’t seen anyone step up to take a leadership role for what happens after Assad,” the diplomat said. “There’s not much of anything that’s encouraging. We should have lowered our expectations.”

The disorganization is strengthening the hand of Islamic extremist groups in Syria, some with ties or affiliations with Al Qaeda, he said: “The longer this goes on, the more likely those groups will gain strength.”…

Moreover, the rebels often adapt their language and appearance in ways they hope will appeal to those distributing weapons. For instance, many rebels have grown the long, scraggly beards favored by hard-line Salafi Muslims after hearing that 

Qatar was more inclined to give weapons to Islamists.”…





..........................

Leave Medicaid part of ObamaCare in place for now, just repeal and replace the part of ObamaCare that forces healthy people into plans they can't use because deductibles and premiums are so high-Betsy McCaughey, NY Post

July 19, 2017, "Ronald Reagan has the answer to GOP’s ObamaCare riddle," Betsy McCaughey, NY Post

"Resistance to Medicaid reform is holding up the works. At least six GOP senators won’t budge on it.  

The way forward is to set aside reforming Medicaid for another day, and pass a repeal bill immediately to undo the coercive individual mandate, the job-killing employer mandate and the ObamaCare regulations that are making private insurance unaffordable.

The Affordable Care Act is actually two laws glued together. First, there’s the vast expansion of Medicaid, the public program serving the poor and disabled. That’s where most of the previously uninsured gained coverage. 

Second, there’s a federal takeover of the private insurance market, previously regulated by each state.

Since several Republican senators are balking at changing Medicaid, GOP leaders should pass the other half of repeal and replace, to rescue consumers in the individual market. There’s no reason not to seize half a victory.

Republicans have enough votes in both the House and Senate to pass a bill that gives consumers choices, premium relief and generous protections for people with pre-existing conditions.

There’s a consensus that people with pre-existing conditions should be able to get insurance and not be stuck paying out of pocket more than anyone else. Republicans and Democrats agree on that. The issue is who pays the hefty price tag for their care.

ObamaCare forced healthy buyers in the individual market to foot the entire bill. It’s called community pricing. And it’s the single biggest reason premiums doubled since 2013, according to actuaries at the financial-consultant firm Milliman.

Healthy people would pay in, but never reach their sky-high deductibles. Instead, premiums extorted from them would be used to cover the huge medical bills for the chronically ill. Call it “extortion care.”

Republicans in both the House and Senate have devised a fairer way: a pot of federal money ($130 billion in the House plan and $182 billion in the Senate version) available to help pay premiums for people with pre-existing conditions. It’s fairer because the entire nation chips in, rather than forcing healthy people stuck in the individual market to overpay.

ObamaCare also forces people to overpay for benefits they don’t want — “10 essential benefits” such as contraceptives and drug-abuse counseling. Essential for whom? The law’s defenders call anything less “junk insurance.” As if Washington knows what you need.

Under both the House and Senate bills, states can allow insurers to offer policies with flexible coverage options and lower premiums. It’s a pro-choice approach to insurance.

The public is ready for these changes, and Republican lawmakers have the votes to pass them now....

The Senate’s failure this week to repeal ObamaCare is a bitter disappointment to the 18 million people in the individual market struggling with unaffordable premiums and deductibles. It’s also bad news for another 8 million who are opting to pay hefty penalties rather than buy those unaffordable plans.

And things are only getting worse. Health insurers are asking for giant rate increases this fall, even as high as 50 percent in Connecticut, Maryland and Virginia. Ouch.

If members of Congress were feeling the same pain, they’d be more focused on repealing and replacing the collapsing law. But they’ve got a sweetheart deal. Even though the Affordable Care Act requires them to purchase their coverage on ObamaCare exchanges and follow the same rules as the rest of us, former President Barack Obama set up a way for them to weasel out of it: They get to choose from 57 gold plans and have John Q. Public pick up most of the tab.

Meanwhile, in nearly half the counties in the nation, ordinary folks will have only one insurer available. Or none at all."...

"Betsy McCaughey is a senior fellow at the London Center for Policy Research and the author of “Beating ObamaCare.”"


...............................


..................

CIA conducted electronic espionage on 2012 French presidential elections, also conducted economic espionage-WikiLeaks, Feb. 16, 2017

The CIA operation ran for ten months from 21 Nov 2011 to 29 Sep 2012, crossing the April-May 2012 French presidential election and several months into the formation of the new government.” 

2/16/2017,CIA espionage orders for the 2012 French presidential election,Press Release, Wikileaks.org

All major French political parties were targeted for infiltration by the CIA’s human (“HUMINT”) and electronic  (“SIGINT”) spies in the seven months leading up to France’s 2012 presidential election. The revelations are contained within three CIA tasking orders published today by WikiLeaks as context for its forth coming CIA Vault 7 series. Named specifically as targets are the French Socialist Party (PS), the National Front (FN) and Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) together with current President Francois Hollande, then President Nicolas Sarkozy, current round one presidential front runner Marine Le Pen, and former presidential candidates Martine Aubry and Dominique Strauss-Khan.

The CIA assessed that President Sarkozy’s party was not assured re-election. Specific tasking concerning his party included obtaining the “Strategic Election Plans” of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP); schisms or alliances developing in the UMP elite; private UMP reactions to Sarkozy’s campaign stratagies; discussions within the UMP on any “perceived vulnerabilities to maintaining power” after the election; efforts to change the party’s ideological mission; and discussions about Sarkozy’s support for the UMP and “the value he places on the continuation of the party’s dominance”. Specific instructions tasked CIA officers to discover Sarkozy’s private deliberations “on the other candidates” as well as how he interacted with his advisors. Sarkozy’s earlier self-identification as “Sarkozy the American” did not protect him from US espionage in the 2012 election or during his presidency. 

The espionage order for “Non Ruling Political Parties and Candidates Strategic Election Plans” which targeted Francois Holland, Marine Le Pen and other opposition figures requires obtaining opposition parties’ strategies for the election; information on internal party dynamics and rising leaders; efforts to influence and implement political decisions; support from local government officials, government elites or business elites; views of the United States; efforts to reach out to other countries, including Germany, U.K., Libya, Israel, Palestine, Syria and Cote d’Ivoire; as well as information about party and candidate funding. 

Significantly, two CIA opposition espionage tasks, “What policies do they promote to help boost France’s economic growth prospects?” and “What are their opinions on the German model of export-led growth?” resonate with a U.S. economic espionage order from the same year. That order requires obtaining details of every prospective French export contract or deal valued at $200m or more. 

The opposition espionage order also places weight on obtaining the candidates’ attitudes to the E.U’s economic crisis, centering around their position on the Greek debt crisis; the role of France and Germany in the management of the Greek debt crisis; the vulnerability of French government and French banks to a Greek default; and “specific proposals and recommendations” to deal with “the euro-zone crisis”. 

The CIA espionage orders published today are classified and restricted to U.S. eyes only (“NOFORN”) due to “Friends-on-Friends sensitivities”. The orders state that the collected information is to “support” the activities of the CIA, the Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA)’s E.U section, and the U.S. State Department’s Intelligence and Research Branch.

The CIA operation ran for ten months from 21 Nov 2011 to 29 Sep 2012, crossing the April-May 2012 French presidential election and several months into the formation of the new government.” 

https://wikileaks.org/cia-france-elections-2012/




......................

CIA weapons worth millions intended for Syrian 'rebels' were stolen, sold by Jordan on black market, some used to kill two Americans there. Existence of failed CIA Syria weapons program is "classified." CIA prisoners are kept in secret jail in Jordan- NY Times, 6/26/2016, joint investigation by NY Times and Al Jazeera

Is the "CIA" an autonomous country? NY Times opening sentence: Weapons shipped "by the Central Intelligence Agency and Saudi Arabia."...
.....
6/26/2016, "C.I.A. Arms for Syrian Rebels Supplied Black Market, Officials Say," NY Times,  

"Weapons shipped into Jordan by the Central Intelligence Agency and Saudi Arabia intended for Syrian rebels have been systematically stolen by Jordanian intelligence operatives and sold to arms merchants on the black market, according to American and Jordanian officials. 

Some of the stolen weapons were used in a shooting in November that killed two Americans and three others at a police training facility in Amman, F.B.I. officials believe after months of investigating the attack, according to people familiar with the investigation.

The existence of the weapons theft, which ended only months ago after complaints by the American and Saudi governments, is being  reported for the first time after a joint investigation by The New York Times and Al Jazeera. The theft, involving millions of dollars of weapons, highlights the messy, unplanned consequences of programs to arm and train rebels — the kind of program the C.I.A. and Pentagon have conducted for decades — even after the Obama administration had hoped to keep the training program in Jordan under tight control.... 

The theft and resale of the arms — including Kalashnikov assault rifles, mortars and rocket-propelled grenades — have led to a flood of new weapons available on the black arms market. 

Investigators do not know what became of most of them, but a disparate collection of groups, including criminal networks and rural Jordanian tribes, use the arms bazaars to build their arsenals. Weapons smugglers also buy weapons in the arms bazaars to ship outside the country.... 

The training program, which in 2013 began directly arming the rebels under the code name Timber Sycamore, is run by the C.I.A. and several Arab intelligence services and aimed at building up forces opposing President Bashar al-Assad of Syria. The United States and Saudi Arabia are the biggest contributors, with the Saudis contributing both weapons and large sums of money, and with C.I.A. paramilitary operatives taking the lead in training the rebels to use Kalashnikovs, mortars, antitank guided missiles and other weapons. 

The existence of the program is classified, as are all details about its budget....The training program is based in Jordan because of the country’s proximity to the Syrian battlefields. From the beginning, the C.I.A. and the Arab intelligence agencies relied on Jordanian security services to transport the weapons, many bought in bulk in the Balkans and elsewhere around Eastern Europe.

The program is separate from one that the Pentagon set up to train rebels to combat Islamic State fighters, rather than the Syrian military. That program was shut down after it managed to train only a handful of Syrian rebels. 

Jordanian and American officials described the weapons theft and subsequent investigation on the condition of anonymity because the Syrian rebel training is classified in the United States and is a government secret in Jordan. 

News of the weapons theft and eventual crackdown has been circulating inside Jordan’s government for several months....

Word that the weapons intended for the rebels were being bought and sold on the black market leaked into Jordan government circles last year, when arms dealers began bragging to their customers that they had large stocks of American- and Saudi-provided weapons. 

Jordanian intelligence operatives monitoring the arms market — operatives not involved in the weapons-diversion scheme — began sending reports to headquarters about a proliferation of weapons in the market and of the boasts of the arms dealers.... 

Since the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, the United States has flooded Jordan with money for various counterterrorism programs. American and Jordanian spies have run a joint counterterrorism center outside Amman, and a secret prison in Jordan housed prisoners the C.I.A. captured in the region....

In 2009, a Jordanian doctor brought to the C.I.A. by a G.I.D. [Jordanian intelligence] officer after the doctor said he had penetrated Al Qaeda’s leadership — turned out to be a double agent and blew himself up at a remote base in Afghanistan. Seven C.I.A. employees, as well as the G.I.D. officer, were killed in the attack....

President Obama authorized the covert arming program in April 2013....The decision was made in part to try to gain control of a chaotic situation in which Arab countries were funneling arms into Syria for various rebel groups with little coordination. The Qataris had paid to smuggle shipments of Chinese-made FN-6 shoulder-fired weapons over the border from Turkey, and Saudi Arabia sent thousands of Kalashnikovs and millions of rounds of ammunition it had bought, sometimes with the C.I.A.’s help. 

By late 2013, the C.I.A. was working directly with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and other nations to arm and train small groups of rebels and send them across the border into Syria. The specific motives behind the November shooting at the Amman police training facility remain uncertain, and it is unclear when the F.B.I. will officially conclude its investigation. 

This year, the widows of the Americans killed in the attack sued Twitter, alleging that it knowingly permitted the Islamic State to use its social media platform to spread the militant group’s violent message, recruiting and raising funds. [paragraph #37 in NY Times article] 

Captain Abu Zaid, the gunman, was killed almost immediately. His brother, Fadi Abu Zaid, said in an interview that he still believed his brother was innocent and that he had given no indications he was planning to carry out the shooting."...
  
.......................

Added: The Hill cites NY Times, above:

6/26/16, "CIA weapons for Syrian rebels funneled onto black markets: report," The Hill, Evelyn Rupert

"Weapons shipped to the Middle East by the CIA [is the CIA  a country?] to arm Syrian rebels have systematically landed on the black market in Jordan, a new report finds.

An investigation by The New York Times and Al Jazeera found that millions of dollars worth of arms sent to Jordan intended for U.S.-backed Syrian groups were routinely stolen in a scheme by Jordanian operatives. Some of the stolen weapons were reportedly used in an attack in Amman, Jordan, that killed five, including two Americans.

The training program for Syrian rebels trying to oust President Bashar al-Assad is largely armed and funded by the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. It was launched in neighboring Jordan in 2013 and relies heavily on Jordanian forces to transport weapons....

Jordanian officials told the news organizations that a group of Jordanian intelligence operatives siphoned off truckloads of weapons before delivering them to their intended destinations.

After complaints from the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, several dozen Jordanian intelligence officers were reportedly arrested and fired from their posts but were able to keep pensions and money they made from the scheme."
................. 

Comment: US taxpayers are the world's laughing stock.



  ..........

US pays for both 'sides' in Syria: CIA and Pentagon backed 'forces' shoot each other. Adam Schiff knows US taxpayers are being forced to fund both 'sides' in Syria. Instead of calling a halt, Schiff says it's a 'challenge.' 'Experts' say it's 'inevitable' in Syria that CIA and Pentagon backed 'sides' attack each other. CIA 'side' was run out of town by Pentagon 'side' in Feb.-LA Times, 3/27/2016

One US group was ambushed by an Al Qaeda affiliate and handed over its weapons and trucks to them. US taxpayers are a global laughing stock for a reason.

3/27/2016, "In Syria, militias armed by the Pentagon fight those armed by the CIA," LA Times, , W.J. Hennigan and Brian Bennett

"Syrian militias armed by different parts of the U.S. war machine have begun to fight each other on the plains between the besieged city of Aleppo and the Turkish border, highlighting how little control U.S. intelligence officers and military planners have over the groups they have financed and trained in the bitter five-year-old civil war.

The fighting has intensified over the last two months, as CIA-armed units and Pentagon-armed ones have repeatedly shot at each other while maneuvering through contested territory on the northern outskirts of Aleppo, U.S. officials and rebel leaders have confirmed.

In mid-February, a CIA-armed militia called Fursan al Haq, or Knights of Righteousness, was run out of the town of Marea, about 20 miles north of Aleppo, by Pentagon-backed Syrian Democratic Forces moving in from Kurdish-controlled areas to the east....

The attacks by one U.S.-backed group against another come amid continued heavy fighting in Syria and illustrate the difficulty facing U.S. efforts to coordinate among dozens of armed groups that are trying to overthrow the government of President Bashar Assad, fight the Islamic State militant group and battle one another all at the same time.

“It is an enormous challenge,” said Rep. Adam Schiff (D-Burbank), the top Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee, who described the clashes between U.S.-supported groups as “a fairly new phenomenon.”

“It is part of the three-dimensional chess that is the Syrian battlefield,” he said....

President Obama this month authorized a new Pentagon plan to train and arm Syrian rebel fighters, relaunching a program that was suspended in the fall after a string of embarrassing setbacks which included recruits being ambushed and handing over much of their U.S.-issued ammunition and trucks to an Al Qaeda affiliate....

The CIA, meanwhile, has its own operations center inside Turkey from which it has been directing aid to rebel groups in Syria, providing them with TOW antitank missiles from Saudi Arabian weapons stockpiles.

While the Pentagon's actions are part of an overt effort by the U.S. and its allies against Islamic State, the CIA's backing of militias is part of a separate covert U.S. effort aimed at keeping pressure on the Assad government in hopes of prodding the Syrian leader to the negotiating table....

“Fighting over territory in Aleppo demonstrates how difficult it is for the U.S. to manage these really localized and in some cases entrenched conflicts,” said Nicholas A. Heras, an expert on the Syrian civil war at the Center for a New American Security, a think tank in Washington. “Preventing clashes is one of the constant topics in the joint operations room with Turkey.”...

The clashes brought the U.S. and Turkish officials to “loggerheads,” he added. After diplomatic pressure from the U.S., the militia withdrew to the outskirts of the town as a sign of good faith, he said.

But continued fighting among different U.S.-backed groups may be inevitable, experts on the region said.

“Once they cross the border into Syria, you lose a substantial amount of control or ability to control their actions,” Jeffrey White, a former Defense Intelligence Agency official, said in a telephone interview. You certainly have the potential for it becoming a larger problem as people fight for territory and control of the northern border area in Aleppo.”" map, LA Times Graphics

..............................



Comment: The greatest and most embarrassing criminal enterprise in the world, the US war machine, is funded by US taxpayers.








...................

Sahara dust crosses the Atlantic to South Florida especially in summer months, creates haze, reduced visibility. 30% of Earth's surface is arid, desert. Dust from Africa, China, and Middle East is natually transported to other countries-NPR

July 28, 2005, "Sahara Dust Cloud Heads to Florida," NPR, M. Brand 

"Southern Florida is about to be hit by a major dust cloud, blown across the Atlantic Ocean from storms scouring sand from the Sahara Desert. Madeleine Brand speaks with dust cloud expert Dr. Joseph Prospero, a professor of marine and atmospheric science at the University of Miami."
Transcript 

"MADELEINE BRAND, host:

I'm Madeleine Brand, and this is DAY TO DAY.

The Caribbean islands and south Florida are bracing for their next major weather event. It's not a hurricane, though; it's a dust storm, an enormous cloud of red sand. And get this: It's kicked up in the Sahara Desert and rides the trade winds all the way across the Atlantic. One person who's spent his career watching this sort of event is Dr. Joseph Prospero. He's a professor of marine and atmospheric science at the University of Miami in Florida. And welcome to the program. 

Dr. JOSEPH PROSPERO (University of Miami): Thank you.

BRAND: So a dust storm all the way from the Sahara. How does the dust get to Miami?

Dr. PROSPERO: Well, during the summer months, Miami and--well, much of the tropical Atlantic and the Caribbean lies in the trade wind belt. So in Africa, you generate dust and it gets lifted up in the atmosphere and it gets caught up in the trade wind circulation, and the dust goes where the trade wind goes. So we get dust here in Miami.

BRAND: So even though it's riding the winds, it doesn't necessarily get put out, if you will, or moistened by the clouds?

Dr. PROSPERO: Well, when the dust-laden air interacts with a tropical storm or a random cloud in the trade winds, it will be removed by precipitation processes. It will rain out and be deposited on the ocean surface or on islands. And, in fact, much of the soils in the Caribbean islands is derived from African dust, so it does contribute something to the islands. So, yes, there is the removal of dust during the transport process, but a lot of it remains in the atmosphere because a large part of the Atlantic doesn't experience much rain at this time of year, particularly the eastern Atlantic. So it travels quite far.

BRAND: So what does it look like? Does it look simply like a hazy day?

Dr. PROSPERO: Yes, it looks like a very hazy day, and you get very much reduced visibility. Our school is located on Virginia Key; we're about, oh, three or four miles from the shoreline. And when I look to downtown Miami, the buildings will be quite hazy and, you know, relatively obscure. Instead of seeing deep, blue skies, you see a sort of, you know, a milky sort of sky. And around the sun, there'll be a very large aureole. That is, light is scattered by the dust and it forms this large, lit, brilliant area around the sun, and it extends out quite a distance. So it's quite apparent.

BRAND: And I suppose down on the ground things get dusty.

Dr. PROSPERO: Yes, yes. But actually, most of the dust is carried at higher altitudes. The dust typically in the Miami area will extend, oh, to 10, 12,000 feet. And most of it is below that level; some will get higher. But you may very well have the highest concentrations aloft within this what we call the Saharan air layer, which has very characteristic properties. It's a dry, hot layer of air and it has a lot of dust in it.

BRAND: And is this only a eastern United States-Caribbean phenomenon, or do dust storms happen all over?

Dr. PROSPERO: Well, there are a lot of dusty places on our Earth. After all, about 30 percent of the Earth's surface is arid, desert. Africa is probably the single largest source in terms of the amount of material generated and transported over great distances, but there--China puts out a lot of dust every year and, of course, the Middle East. We often see that in the news clips on television in the evening when they show scenes from Iraq. And you'll often notice that it is quite hazy. It's because there's a lot of dust generated in that region. 

BRAND: Joseph Prospero is a professor at the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science in Florida. 

Thanks for joining us.

 Dr. PROSPERO: You're quite welcome.

BRAND: DAY TO DAY returns in a moment. I'm Madeleine Brand."

"Copyright © 2005 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at www.npr.org for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio."



.

Followers

Blog Archive

About Me

My photo
I'm the daughter of an Eagle Scout (fan of the Brooklyn Dodgers and Mets) and a Beauty Queen.